然而，在 1980 年代，出现了一种新的永磁体，叫做“钕磁铁”。钕磁铁的强度大约是传统磁铁的两倍。因此，它被用于比智能手机更小、功能更强大的耳机和头戴式耳机中。除此之外，我们日常生活中不难发现“钕磁铁”。现在，我们生活中一些扬声器，电磁炉，手机中，都包含有“钕磁铁”。
另一个是它显示出非常好的效率，电动汽车中常用的电机的效率约为 70-95%。换句话说，如果您提供 100% 的电源，则最多可以提供 95% 的输出。但是，在这个过程中，由于铁损等损耗因素，输出损耗是不可避免的。
然而，据说在大多数情况下，马勒的效率超过 95%，在某些情况下高达 96%。虽然具体数字还没有公布，但预计续航里程相比前代车型会略有增加。
German auto parts company Mahle has developed high-efficiency electric motors for EVs, and it is not expected that there will be supply and demand pressures for rare earths.
Unlike the internal combustion engine, the basic structure and working principle of the electric motor are surprisingly simple. I think many people have played with an electric motor in a four-wheel drive as a child.
The working principle of the motor is that the force of the magnetic field on the current causes the motor to rotate. The electric motor is a device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy. It uses an energized coil to generate a rotating magnetic field and acts on the rotor to form a magnetoelectric rotational torque. The motor is easy to use, reliable in operation, low in price and firm in structure.
Therefore, many things in our life that can rotate, such as hair dryers, vacuum cleaners, etc., have electric motors.
The electric motor in a pure electric vehicle is relatively much larger and more complicated, but the basic principle is the same.
The material required in the motor to transmit force, and the material that conducts electricity from the battery is the copper coil inside the motor. The material that forms the magnetic field is the magnet. These are also the two most basic materials that make up the motor.
In the past, the magnets used in electric motors were mainly iron permanent magnets, but the problem was that the strength of the magnetic field was limited. So if you downsize the motor to the point where it plugs into a smartphone today, you wont get the magnetic force you need.
However, in the 1980s, a new type of permanent magnet, called a neodymium magnet, appeared. Neodymium magnets are about twice as strong as conventional magnets. As a result, it is used in earphones and headsets that are smaller and more powerful than smartphones. In addition, it is not difficult to find neodymium magnets in our daily life. Now, some speakers, induction cookers, and mobile phones in our lives contain neodymium magnets.
And the reason EVs can start so quickly today is because neodymium magnets can significantly improve the size or output of the motor. However, after entering the 21st century, a new problem has arisen, which is due to the use of rare earths in neodymium magnets. Most of the rare earth resources are in China. According to statistics, about 97% of the worlds rare earth magnet raw materials are supplied by China. At present, the export of such resources has been strictly restricted.
After developing neodymium magnets, scientists have tried and failed to develop smaller, stronger, and even cheaper magnets. As China controls the supply of various rare metals and rare earths, there are also analysts who believe that the price of electric vehicles will not drop as expected.
Recently, however, the German automotive technology and components development company MAHLE has successfully developed a new type of electric motor that is completely free of rare earth elements. The developed motor contains no magnets at all.
This motor method is called an induction motor, and it creates a magnetic field by passing current through the stator instead of the magnets through which the current can flow. At this time, when the rotor is affected by the magnetic field, electromotive force energy will be induced, and the interaction between the two will generate rotational force.
Simply put, if the magnetic field is permanently generated by wrapping the motor with permanent magnets, then the method is to replace the permanent magnets with electromagnets. This method has many advantages, the principle of operation is simple, and it is very durable. Most importantly, there is little reduction in heat generation efficiency, one of the disadvantages of neodymium magnets is that their performance decreases when high heat is generated.
But it also has the disadvantage that the heating is severe as the current continues to flow between the stator and rotor. Of course, the heat generated can be fully harnessed and used as an interior heater. Apart from that, there are several disadvantages. But Mahler announced that he had successfully developed a magnetless motor that compensated for the shortcomings of induction motors.
MAHLE has two major advantages in its newly developed magnetless motors. First, it is not affected by the instability of rare earth supply and demand. As mentioned above, most of the rare earth metals currently used in permanent magnets are supplied by China, but non-magnetic motors are not affected by rare earth supply pressures. In addition, since rare earth materials are not used, it can be supplied at a lower price.
Another is that it shows very good efficiency, the efficiency of motors commonly used in electric vehicles is around 70-95%. In other words, if you supply 100% of the power, you can supply up to 95% of the output. However, in this process, output loss is inevitable due to loss factors such as iron loss.
However, MAHLE is said to be more than 95% efficient in most cases, and as high as 96% in some cases. While exact numbers havent been announced, expect a slight increase in range over the previous model.
Finally, Mahler explained that the developed non-magnetic motor can be used not only in ordinary passenger electric vehicles, but also in commercial vehicles by scaling up. Mahler said studies on mass production have begun, and he is confident that once the development of the new motor is complete, he will be able to provide a more stable, lower cost and more efficient motor.
If this technology is completed, perhaps MAHLEs advanced motor technology could be a new starting point for better electric vehicle technology.